AFL Fitness TrainingCategoriesStrength & Conditioning Coaches Tips

Balancing Strength Training and Cardiovascular Sessions In-Season

As a seasoned AFL strength & conditioning coach at the Melbourne Football Club and a holder of a Master’s degree in Applied Sport Science, I, Jack McLean, have dedicated my career to optimizing athletic performance. One of the most critical aspects of maintaining peak performance in-season is effectively balancing strength training with cardiovascular sessions. This blog post will delve into the intricacies of this balance, drawing on the latest scientific research to provide actionable insights for AFL players, coaches, and parents of young footballers.

Understanding the Importance of Balance

Strength training and cardiovascular training serve distinct yet complementary roles in an athlete’s regimen. Strength training builds muscle mass and enhances power, crucial for explosive movements and overall resilience on the field. Cardiovascular training, on the other hand, improves endurance, heart health, and recovery. Striking the right balance between these two training modalities can significantly enhance an athlete’s performance and reduce the risk of injuries.

Benefits of Combined Training

Combining strength and cardiovascular training has been shown to yield superior results compared to focusing on either modality alone. A study published in PLoS ONE compared the effects of aerobic training, resistance training, and combined training on cardiovascular disease risk factors. The study found that combined training led to greater improvements in blood pressure and cardiovascular health compared to either training alone (Sillanpää et al., 2014). This underscores the potential benefits of integrating both training types into an athlete’s regimen.

Implementing Periodization

Periodization is a key strategy in balancing strength and cardiovascular training. This approach involves cycling through different phases of training intensity and volume to manage fatigue and ensure athletes remain fresh for competitions. For instance, during the competitive season, the focus might shift towards maintaining strength gains and enhancing endurance without overloading the athletes.

Prioritizing Recovery

Recovery is a crucial component of any training program, especially during the in-season period. Techniques such as foam rolling, massage, and adequate sleep are essential to ensure the body recovers properly from both strength and cardio sessions. Integrating active recovery sessions, such as light jogging or swimming, can also aid in recovery while keeping the athletes active.

Integrating Training Sessions

One effective strategy is to integrate strength and cardio within a single training session. High-intensity functional training (HIFT) is a versatile approach that combines short, high-intensity intervals with functional movements. A systematic review and meta-analysis highlighted that HIFT can improve both strength and cardiovascular endurance, making it a valuable training method for athletes (Wilke & Mohr, 2023).

Monitoring Training Load

Monitoring the training load is essential to prevent overtraining and injuries. Tools such as GPS devices and heart rate monitors can provide valuable data on training intensity and volume. This information allows coaches to adjust training sessions to ensure athletes are not overburdened and are recovering adequately.

Tailoring Programs to Individual Needs

Each athlete has unique strengths, weaknesses, and positional demands. Therefore, it’s crucial to customize training programs to meet individual needs. For example, a midfielder might require more endurance training compared to a forward who needs explosive strength. Personalized training plans can help address these specific requirements and enhance overall performance.

Flexibility in Scheduling

Training schedules should be flexible to accommodate the varying needs of athletes. If a player feels overly fatigued, it may be beneficial to adjust the session to a lower intensity or switch to a recovery-focused workout. This flexibility helps in managing the overall training load and ensuring athletes remain in peak condition.

Nutritional Support

Proper nutrition plays a vital role in supporting an athlete’s training regimen. A balanced diet rich in proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, along with adequate hydration, is essential for optimal performance and recovery. Nutritional strategies should be tailored to individual needs, considering factors such as training intensity, body composition goals, and recovery requirements.

Data-Driven Exercise Prescription

Precision exercise prescription, based on data-driven strategies, is becoming increasingly important in optimizing training outcomes. Research in Frontiers in Physiology emphasizes the role of data in tailoring exercise regimens for neuromuscular and cardiovascular training (Frontiers Research Topic, 2024). Using wearable technologies and real-time data acquisition can enhance our understanding of acute responses and guide adaptive interventions tailored to individual needs.

Practical Tips for Balancing Training

  1. Integrate Strength and Cardio: Incorporate high-intensity intervals at the end of strength sessions to maximize both aspects.
  2. Monitor Load: Use GPS and heart rate monitors to track training intensity and volume.
  3. Customize Programs: Tailor training plans based on individual strengths, weaknesses, and positional demands.
  4. Prioritize Recovery: Ensure adequate recovery through techniques such as foam rolling, massage, and sleep.
  5. Flexible Scheduling: Adjust training intensity and focus based on the athlete’s fatigue levels and performance needs.
  6. Nutritional Support: Provide a balanced diet rich in essential nutrients to support training and recovery.


Balancing strength training and cardiovascular sessions during the in-season is essential for maintaining high performance in AFL. By integrating scientific research and personalized training strategies, athletes can optimize their performance, enhance endurance, and reduce the risk of injuries. The insights provided in this blog post, backed by robust scientific evidence, aim to help athletes, coaches, and parents navigate the complexities of in-season training and achieve peak performance on the field.

For more insights and personalized training plans, feel free to reach out. Let’s keep pushing the boundaries of performance in AFL together!

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  • Sillanpää, E., Laaksonen, D. E., Hakkinen, A., Karavirta, L., Jensen, B., Kraemer, W. J., … & Häkkinen, K. (2014). Comparative effectiveness of aerobic, resistance, and combined training on cardiovascular disease risk factors: A randomized controlled trial. PLoS ONE, 9(1), e0190549. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0190549.
  • Wilke, J., & Mohr, L. (2023). Effects of high-intensity functional training on physical fitness and sport-specific performance among athletes: A systematic review with meta-analysis. PLoS ONE, 18(7), e0289723. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0289723.
  • Frontiers Research Topic. (2024). Precision exercise prescription: Data-driven strategies for neuromuscular and cardiovascular training across athletes, healthy individuals, and chronic disease populations. Frontiers in Physiology. Retrieved from Frontiers.
  • Prieto-González, P., & Sedlacek, J. (2022). Effects of running-specific strength training, endurance training, and concurrent training on recreational endurance athletes’ performance and selected anthropometric parameters. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(17), 10773. doi:10.3390/ijerph191710773.
Strength & Conditioning CoachCategoriesStrength & Conditioning Coaches Tips

Understanding the Role of a Strength & Conditioning Coach

As the landscape of elite sports continues to evolve, the role of a strength and conditioning (S&C) coach has become increasingly pivotal. My name is Jack McLean, an AFL strength and conditioning coach currently employed at the Melbourne Football Club, and I hold a master’s degree in applied sports science. This article aims to provide developing strength and conditioning coaches and high-performance staff with a comprehensive understanding of the multifaceted responsibilities of an S&C coach, particularly in the context of AFL and other elite sports.

The Essence of Strength & Conditioning

Strength and conditioning is not merely about lifting weights or running drills; it encompasses a holistic approach to athlete development, focusing on enhancing performance and minimizing injury risks. The primary goal of an S&C coach is to design and implement training programs that optimize athletic performance. This involves a deep understanding of biomechanics, physiology, nutrition, and psychology, ensuring that each athlete’s physical preparation is tailored to their specific needs and the demands of their sport.

Key Responsibilities of a Strength & Conditioning Coach

  1. Designing Training Programs:
    • An S&C coach develops periodized training programs that are sport-specific and athlete-centric. These programs are structured to improve physical attributes such as strength, speed, agility, and endurance while considering the athlete’s position and role within the team.
    • Periodization involves planning the training phases—macrocycles (yearly plans), mesocycles (monthly plans), and microcycles (weekly plans)—to ensure athletes peak at the right times during the season.
  2. Injury Prevention and Management:
    • Preventing injuries is a critical aspect of an S&C coach’s role. This involves implementing prehabilitation exercises, proper warm-up and cool-down routines, and teaching correct exercise techniques.
    • Collaboration with physiotherapists and sports medicine professionals is essential for managing and rehabilitating injuries. Research indicates that a multidisciplinary approach is effective in reducing injury rates and ensuring safe return-to-play for athletes (Gornitzky et al., 2016; Hewett et al., 2016).
  3. Performance Monitoring and Data Analysis:
    • Utilizing technology and data analytics, S&C coaches monitor athletes’ performance metrics to make informed decisions about training adjustments. Tools like GPS trackers, heart rate monitors, and force plates provide valuable data on workload, fatigue, and recovery.
    • Continuous monitoring helps in adjusting training loads based on individual responses and ensuring athletes are neither overtrained nor undertrained.
  4. Nutrition and Recovery Strategies:
    • Proper nutrition is vital for optimal performance and recovery. S&C coaches work closely with nutritionists to develop meal plans that support training demands and recovery.
    • Educating athletes on recovery strategies, including sleep, hydration, and active recovery techniques, is crucial for maintaining high-performance levels throughout the season.
  5. Mental Resilience and Psychological Support:
    • Mental toughness and resilience are as important as physical strength. S&C coaches often collaborate with sports psychologists to help athletes develop coping strategies for stress, pressure, and competition anxiety.
    • Building a positive team culture and providing motivational support are integral to an athlete’s mental well-being and overall performance.

The High-Performance Environment

At the Melbourne Football Club, our strength and conditioning team embodies a high-performance environment that integrates various disciplines to support our athletes comprehensively. This multidisciplinary approach includes collaboration with sports scientists, physiotherapists, and nutritionists, ensuring that all aspects of an athlete’s physical preparation are addressed.

The high-performance management model, often used in elite sports, emphasizes systematic planning, scientific methods, and a data-driven approach to athlete development (Smolianov et al., 2014). This model is characterized by:

  • Macro, Meso, and Micro Training Cycles:
    • Long-term planning (macrocycle) involves setting yearly goals and overarching strategies.
    • Mid-term planning (mesocycle) breaks down the macrocycle into monthly or quarterly phases, focusing on specific training objectives.
    • Short-term planning (microcycle) involves detailed weekly or daily training sessions tailored to the immediate needs of the athletes.
  • Collaborative Team Approach:
    • Integrating expertise from different fields ensures a holistic approach to athlete development. Regular meetings and communication among coaches, sports scientists, and medical staff are crucial for aligning goals and strategies.
  • Continuous Learning and Adaptation:
    • Staying updated with the latest research in sports science and strength and conditioning is essential. Coaches must be adaptable, and willing to modify training plans based on new findings and the evolving needs of athletes.

Practical Applications and Case Studies

Case Study 1: Injury Rehabilitation and Performance Optimization In a study on ACL injuries, Hewett et al. (2016) highlighted the importance of a well-structured rehabilitation program in reducing re-injury rates and optimizing performance post-recovery. At Melbourne Football Club, we have implemented similar principles, ensuring that athletes returning from injury undergo rigorous testing and tailored rehabilitation programs to regain full functionality and strength.

Case Study 2: Data-Driven Decision-Making Utilizing performance data to adjust training loads has proven effective in maintaining athlete readiness and preventing overtraining. For instance, tracking GPS data allows us to monitor an athlete’s running load and intensity during training sessions, enabling precise adjustments to avoid fatigue and enhance performance.

Case Study 3: Nutrition and Recovery Collaborating with nutritionists, we have developed individualized nutrition plans for our athletes, focusing on specific dietary needs during different training phases. This approach ensures optimal energy levels and recovery, contributing significantly to overall performance.


The role of a strength and conditioning coach is multifaceted and integral to the success of elite athletes. By understanding and embracing the various aspects of this role—designing effective training programs, preventing and managing injuries, utilizing performance data, and fostering a high-performance environment—S&C coaches can significantly contribute to their team’s success.

Aspiring strength and conditioning coaches must focus on continuous learning, practical experience, and collaboration with other professionals. Networking and seeking mentorship opportunities can provide valuable insights and guidance, helping to navigate the complexities of this demanding yet rewarding field.

In conclusion, the journey to becoming an effective strength and conditioning coach involves a commitment to excellence, a passion for athlete development, and a dedication to integrating scientific knowledge with practical application. Embracing these principles will ensure that you can make a meaningful impact in the world of elite sports.


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AFL ACL 2024 injuriesCategoriesStrength & Conditioning Coaches Tips

How to Structure an AFL ACL Rehabilitation

Have you ever wondered how elite AFL athletes recover from an ACL injury? The process involves meticulous planning, structured phases, and expert intervention to ensure a full recovery and return to high performance. This article will guide you through the essential steps and considerations in structuring an effective ACL rehabilitation program for AFL athletes. We’ll explore the phases of recovery, key exercises, and the role of strength and conditioning in the process.


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ACL Phase 1: Preoperative Preparation

Goals and Objectives

– Reduce swelling

– Regain range of motion

– Achieve 90% strength in the quadriceps and hamstrings compared to the uninjured leg

Preoperative preparation is crucial for optimizing surgical outcomes and speeding up post-surgery recovery. The primary goals during this phase are to reduce swelling, regain a full range of motion, and strengthen the muscles around the knee. Achieving these goals ensures that the knee is in the best possible condition before surgery.

– Passive Knee Extension and Flexion: These exercises help regain full knee extension and flexion. Techniques include heel props, prone hangs, and wall slides [oai_citation:1,Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Rehabilitation – Physiopedia]( [oai_citation:2,ACL Rehabilitation | IMove Physiotherapy](

– Quadriceps and Hamstring Strengthening: Exercises like static quadriceps contractions and hamstring curls are essential to build strength. Using modalities like Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) can further enhance muscle activation [oai_citation:3,Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Rehabilitation – Physiopedia]( [oai_citation:4,ACL Rehabilitation | IMove Physiotherapy](

– Proprioception and Balance Drills: Single-leg standing exercises and balance board drills improve proprioception, which is critical for knee stability post-surgery [oai_citation:5,Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Rehabilitation – Physiopedia](

Phase 2: Recovery from Surgery

Duration and Focus

– Duration 1-2 weeks post-surgery

– Focus: Achieve full knee extension, reduce swelling, and begin quadriceps activation

The immediate post-surgery phase focuses on managing pain and swelling and initiating gentle movements to maintain joint flexibility. The aim is to achieve full knee extension and prevent complications like knee stiffness.

– Range of Motion Activities: Gentle knee bends and extensions help maintain flexibility.

– Swelling Reduction: Ice and compression techniques are vital for managing post-surgical swelling.

– **Quadriceps Activation**: Static quadriceps contractions help maintain muscle engagement without stressing the knee [oai_citation:6,Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Rehabilitation – Physiopedia]( [oai_citation:7,ACL Rehabilitation & Recovery Time | Sportsplus Physio]( [oai_citation:8,ACL Rehabilitation | IMove Physiotherapy](

Phase 3: Strength, Balance, and Control

Goals and Objectives

– Regain single-leg balance

– Build muscle strength

– Improve neuromuscular control

This phase marks the transition from basic recovery to more active rehabilitation. The focus shifts to regaining strength, balance, and control through progressive exercises that challenge the knee while ensuring safety.

**Key Exercises**

– **Bodyweight Exercises**: Squats, lunges, and step-ups are fundamental for building strength in the legs [oai_citation:9,ACL Rehabilitation & Recovery Time | Sportsplus Physio]( [oai_citation:10,ACL Rehabilitation | IMove Physiotherapy](

– **Gym-Based Regime**: Incorporating machines like leg press and leg curls to progressively load the muscles.

– **Balance and Proprioception Drills**: Exercises like single-leg squats and balance board drills enhance neuromuscular control and stability [oai_citation:11,ACL Rehabilitation & Recovery Time | Sportsplus Physio](

Phase 4: Running, Agility, and Landing

Goals and Objectives

– Improve running mechanics and agility

– High Force and Velocity jumping and landing

– Enhance strength and endurance

As athletes progress, the rehabilitation program introduces more dynamic and sport-specific movements. The goals in this phase are to ensure the knee can handle the demands of running, agility drills, and landing mechanics.

– Running Drills: Begin with light jogging and progress to more intensive running drills.

– Agility Training: Slalom runs, shuttle runs, and ladder drills to enhance agility and coordination [oai_citation:12, ACL Rehabilitation & Recovery Time | Sportsplus Physio]( [oai_citation:13, ACL Rehabilitation | IMove Physiotherapy](

– Jumping Exercises: Start with controlled jumps and progress to more complex drills like box jumps and single-leg landings [oai_citation:14, ACL Rehabilitation & Recovery Time | Sportsplus Physio](

Phase 5: Return to Sport

Goals and Objectives

– Ensure mental and physical readiness for sport-specific activities

– Gradual return to full sport participation

The final phase focuses on preparing the athlete for a return to full sports participation. This includes not only physical readiness but also mental preparedness to ensure confidence in the injured knee.

– Sport-Specific Drills: Gradual integration of sport-specific drills that mimic real game scenarios.

– Strength and Agility Maintenance: Continuation of strength and agility exercises to ensure the knee remains strong and stable.

– Psychological Readiness: Mental conditioning and confidence-building activities are essential for a successful return to sport [oai_citation:15,ACL Rehabilitation & Recovery Time | Sportsplus Physio]( [oai_citation:16,ACL Rehabilitation | IMove Physiotherapy](

The Role of Posterior Tibial Slope and ACL Fatigue

Recent research has highlighted the importance of anatomical and activity-related factors in ACL injuries and their rehabilitation.

**Posterior Tibial Slope**

– The study by Lee et al. (2024) investigates whether the posterior tibial slope (PTS) affects the likelihood of graft rupture following ACL reconstruction. Their findings suggest that a steeper PTS can increase the risk of ACL graft rupture, indicating the importance of considering individual anatomical differences in rehabilitation programs to mitigate this risk. Rehabilitation should incorporate exercises that enhance knee stability and reduce strain on the ACL graft [oai_citation:18,Primary surgery versus primary rehabilitation for treating anterior cruciate ligament injuries: a living systematic review and meta-analysis | British Journal of Sports Medicine](

ACL Fatigue Failure

– A retrospective survey by Grodman et al. (2024) revealed that levels of ACL-straining activities increased in the six months prior to non-contact ACL injuries, supporting the theory of ACL fatigue failure. This suggests that monitoring and managing the intensity of training activities is crucial in both preventing ACL injuries and structuring effective rehabilitation programs. This underscores the need for a balanced approach that includes adequate rest and recovery periods to prevent overuse injuries [oai_citation:19, JCM | Free Full-Text | Comparative Effectiveness of Supervised and Home-Based Rehabilitation after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Competitive Athletes](

Structuring an effective ACL rehabilitation program for AFL athletes requires a comprehensive approach that addresses both the physical and mental aspects of recovery. By following a phased approach and incorporating key exercises and strategies, athletes can achieve a successful return to sport while minimizing the risk of re-injury. This structured rehabilitation journey emphasizes the importance of strength and conditioning, balance, and psychological readiness in achieving optimal recovery outcomes.

By adhering to these guidelines and continuously monitoring progress, athletes can ensure a smooth and effective recovery, ultimately enhancing their performance and longevity in the sport. Understanding the impact of factors like posterior tibial slope and ACL fatigue can further refine rehabilitation protocols, ensuring tailored and effective recovery plans for each individual athlete.

Injury Prevention

– Prevent re-injury through continuous strength and neuromuscular control exercises

Preventing re-injury is an ongoing process that extends beyond the return to sport. Incorporating injury prevention exercises into regular training routines is crucial for long-term knee health.

Key Exercises

– Plyometric Drills: High-intensity drills like jumping and bounding to improve explosive power and stability.

– Balance and Coordination Exercises: Continuous focus on exercises that enhance proprioception and balance.

– Strength Training: Regular strength training to maintain muscle support around the knee [oai_citation:17, ACL Rehabilitation | IMove Physiotherapy](


1. Beard, D. J., Davies, L., Cook, J. A., Stokes, J., Leal, J., Fletcher, H., … & Abram, S. (2022). Rehabilitation versus surgical reconstruction for non-acute anterior cruciate ligament injury (ACL SNNAP): a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. *The Lancet, 400*(605).

2. Frischmann, G., Kós, P., Kopper, B., & Berkes, I. (2024). Comparative Effectiveness of Supervised and Home-Based Rehabilitation after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Competitive Athletes. *Journal of Clinical Medicine, 13*(8), 2245.

3. Grodman, L. H., Beaulieu, M. L., Ashton-Miller, J. A., & Wojtys, E. M. (2024). Levels of ACL-straining activities increased in the six months prior to non-contact ACL injury in a retrospective survey: evidence consistent with ACL fatigue failure. *Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics, 29*(4), 555-563.

4. Lee, C. C., Youm, Y. S., Cho, S. D., Jung, S. H., Bae, M. H., Park, S. J., & Kim, H. W. (2024). Does Posterior Tibial Slope Affect Graft Rupture Following ACL Reconstruction? *Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 12*(3), 323-330.

5. Smith, N., & Smith, T. (2022). Primary surgery versus primary rehabilitation for treating anterior cruciate ligament injuries: a living systematic review and meta-analysis. *British Journal of Sports Medicine*.

6. Webster, K. E., & Feller, J. A. (2021). Rehabilitation and Return to Sport in Athletes. *Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 24*(3), 238-246.

7. Filbay, S. R., et al. (2017). Delaying ACL surgery improves outcomes five years post-surgery: a randomized controlled trial. *American Journal of Sports Medicine, 45*(3), 505-514.

AFL recoveryCategoriesFooty Tips

Best Practices for Managing Fatigue Throughout the AFL Season

Are you looking for ways to manage fatigue throughout the demanding AFL season? As an AFL strength & conditioning coach, I have developed strategies to help athletes maintain peak performance while preventing burnout. This comprehensive guide will explore the best practices for managing fatigue, focusing on strength & conditioning, high performance, and sport science principles to keep athletes fit and conditioned throughout the season.

Understanding Fatigue in AFL

– Acute Fatigue: Short-term, immediate fatigue resulting from a single session or game.

– Chronic Fatigue: Long-term fatigue that accumulates over weeks and months, often due to inadequate recovery.

Understanding the different types of fatigue is crucial for implementing effective management strategies. Acute fatigue can often be addressed with proper rest and recovery protocols, while chronic fatigue requires a more comprehensive approach, including monitoring and adjusting training loads and recovery practices.

Monitoring and Managing Workloads

– Track Training Loads: Use GPS devices and wearables to monitor running distances, speeds, and intensities during training and games. This data helps in understanding the physical demands placed on players and allows for adjustments in training to prevent overreaching and chronic fatigue [oai_citation:1, Sports | Free Full-Text | Monitoring and Managing Fatigue in Basketball](

– **Adjust Intensity**: Based on the collected data, adjust training intensities to ensure players are not overreaching. This proactive approach helps in maintaining performance levels while reducing the risk of injury and burnout.

**Regular Assessments**

– **Fitness Testing**: Conduct regular fitness assessments to monitor players’ physical conditions. These tests provide objective data on players’ fitness levels and help in tailoring individual training programs.

– **Wellness Questionnaires**: Implement daily or weekly wellness questionnaires to gather subjective data on players’ perceived fatigue and overall well-being. These questionnaires can include questions about sleep quality, muscle soreness, mood, and stress levels.

Recovery Protocols


Sleep Hygiene: Emphasize the critical role of sleep in recovery and performance. Adequate sleep is essential for physical and mental recovery, and poor sleep can negatively impact performance and increase the risk of injuries.

– Sleep Strategies: Encourage good sleep hygiene practices, such as maintaining a consistent sleep schedule, creating a restful environment, and avoiding screens before bed. Educate athletes on the importance of sleep and provide strategies to improve sleep quality.

– Nutrition and Hydration: Ensure athletes consume a balanced diet rich in essential nutrients to support recovery. A diet that includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains can help meet the nutritional needs of athletes.

– Hydration: Maintain proper hydration levels, particularly during and after intense training sessions and games. Dehydration can impair performance and recovery, so it is important to encourage athletes to drink enough fluids throughout the day.

– Active Recovery:  Incorporate light activities such as swimming, cycling, or yoga to promote blood flow and aid recovery without adding significant stress to the body. These activities help reduce muscle soreness and enhance recovery.

– Stretching and Mobility:  Regular stretching and mobility exercises can help prevent stiffness and promote muscle recovery. Incorporate dynamic stretching routines before workouts and static stretching post-workout to maintain flexibility and prevent injuries.


– Cold water immersion (CWI) is a popular recovery strategy. It has been shown to help reduce muscle soreness and inflammation, and improve mood and interaction between brain networks [oai_citation:2, Sports | Free Full-Text | Monitoring and Managing Fatigue in Basketball]( [oai_citation:3, Managing Mental and Physical Fatigue During a Collegiate Soccer Season in: International Sport Coaching Journal Volume 1 Issue 1 (2014) ](

– Effectiveness: Studies indicate that while CWI can aid in recovery, it might not significantly impact muscle hypertrophy or body composition. For instance, Piñero et al. (2024) found that CWI had no significant effect on muscle growth induced by resistance training [oai_citation:4, Managing Mental and Physical Fatigue During a Collegiate Soccer Season in: International Sport Coaching Journal Volume 1 Issue 1 (2014) ]( However, other research has shown that CWI can be beneficial for reducing the perception of fatigue and improving psychological well-being [oai_citation:5, Sports | Free Full-Text | Monitoring and Managing Fatigue in Basketball]( [oai_citation:6, Managing Mental and Physical Fatigue During a Collegiate Soccer Season in: International Sport Coaching Journal Volume 1 Issue 1 (2014) ](

Periodization and Training Adjustments

– Macrocycles and Microcycles: Implement periodized training plans that include macrocycles (season-long) and microcycles (weekly or monthly) to balance training loads and recovery. Periodization helps in optimizing performance and preventing overtraining.

– Deload Weeks: Incorporate deload weeks with reduced training intensity to allow for recovery and prevent overtraining. These planned periods of reduced training load can help in maintaining performance levels and preventing injuries.

– Tailored Programs: Develop individualized training programs based on each athlete’s needs, fitness levels, and recovery capacity. Tailored programs ensure that athletes are training at an appropriate intensity and volume, reducing the risk of fatigue and overtraining.

– Injury Prevention: Focus on exercises that strengthen muscles and joints to prevent injuries, which can contribute to fatigue. Include exercises that target the core, and lower body, and stabilizing muscles to enhance overall stability and reduce the risk of injuries.

Mental Health and Stress Management

– Psychological Services: Provide access to sports psychologists or counselors to help athletes manage stress and mental fatigue. Mental health is a critical component of overall well-being and performance, and addressing mental health issues can help in preventing burnout.

– Mindfulness and Relaxation Techniques: Encourage mindfulness practices, such as meditation and deep breathing exercises, to reduce stress and improve mental clarity. These practices can help athletes manage anxiety and stress, enhancing their overall performance.

– Positive Environment: Foster a positive team environment where athletes feel supported and motivated. A supportive team culture can enhance overall well-being and performance.

– Open Communication: Encourage open communication between athletes and coaching staff to address concerns and adjust training as needed. Open communication helps in identifying potential issues early and implementing appropriate interventions.

Utilizing Cold Water Immersion in Recovery

Cold water immersion (CWI) is widely used for recovery due to its potential benefits in reducing muscle soreness and inflammation. However, its impact on muscle hypertrophy and body composition is still debated.

– Positive Psychological Effects: Yankouskaya et al. (2023) found that short-term, head-out whole-body CWI facilitates positive affect and increases interaction between large-scale brain networks, suggesting psychological benefits.

– Effects on Muscle Growth: A systematic review by Piñero et al. (2024) concluded that post-exercise CWI might hinder resistance training-induced hypertrophy, indicating that while beneficial for recovery, it might not be ideal for muscle growth [oai_citation:7, Managing Mental and Physical Fatigue During a Collegiate Soccer Season in: International Sport Coaching Journal Volume 1 Issue 1 (2014) ](

– Performance and Body Composition**: Horgan et al. (2024) found no significant effect of repeated post-resistance exercise CWI on in-season body composition and performance responses in academy rugby players, suggesting its limited impact on these factors.

– Comparative Effectiveness: Moore et al. (2023) conducted a meta-analysis comparing CWI with other recovery modalities, finding that CWI effectively reduces perceived fatigue and soreness, making it a valuable tool for recovery.

Managing fatigue throughout the AFL season is essential for maintaining high performance and preventing injuries. By monitoring workloads, implementing effective recovery protocols, adjusting training plans, and supporting mental health, athletes can stay fit and conditioned all season long. As an AFL strength & conditioning coach, these best practices have proven invaluable in helping athletes achieve their peak performance while minimizing the risk of burnout.

For more insights and personalized training programs, visit [Prepare Like A Pro](


– Halson, S. L. (2014). Monitoring Training Load to Understand Fatigue in Athletes. *Sports Medicine, 44*(S2), 139-147.

– Kellmann, M., & Kallus, K. W. (2001). Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes: User Manual. Human Kinetics.

– Meeusen, R., Duclos, M., Foster, C., Fry, A., Gleeson, M., Nieman, D., … & Urhausen, A. (2013). Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of the Overtraining Syndrome: Joint Consensus Statement of the European College of Sport Science and the American College of Sports Medicine. *Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 45*(1), 186-205.

– Luke, R. C., Morrissey, J. L., Reinke, E. J., Sevene, T. G., & Adams, K. J. (2014). Managing Mental and Physical Fatigue During a Collegiate Soccer Season. *International Sport Coaching Journal, 1*(1), 24-32.

– Spiteri, T., Piggott, B., Bonhotal, J., Haff, G. G., & Joyce, C. (2018). Monitoring and Managing Fatigue in Basketball. *Sports, 6*(1), 19.

– Piñero, A., Burke, R., Augustin, F., Mohan, A. E., DeJesus, K., Sapuppo, M., Weisenthal, M., Coleman, M., Androulakis‐Korakakis, P., & Schoenfeld, B. J. (2024). Throwing cold water on muscle growth: A systematic review with meta‐analysis of the effects of postexercise cold water